【初中英语】宾语从句考点精讲及练习 / 中考压轴考点,必会!

更新时间:2020/11/16
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1

概念引入

1. 宾语从句名言:

(1) that引导的宾语从句

Sometimes we need to remind ourselves that thankfulness is indeed a virtue.

有时我们需要提醒自己,感激是真正的美德。

Health is the thing that makes you feel that now is the best time of the year.

健康使你感到现在是一年中最好的时光。

(2)what引导的宾语从句

If you can’t have the best, make the best of what you have.

没有最好的,就充分利用现有的。

If you don’t have what you like,you must like what you have.

没有你喜欢的东西,就喜欢你现有的东西。

2. 宾语从句定义:

在主从复合句子中,充当宾语,位于及物动词、介词或复合谓语之后的从句称为宾语从句。 宾语可分为三类:动词的宾语从句、介词的宾语从句、形容词的宾语从句。

2

用法讲解

1. 宾语从句的引导词

在复合句子中,作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。例如:

I want to know whose book this is.

我想知道这是谁的书。

宾语从句的引导词有三种:

1)that;2)whether/ if;3)特殊疑问词what/ when/ where/ who等。例如:

He said that he could help me. 他说他能够帮助我。

Your mother asked if you could finish your work this week.

你妈妈问这个星期你能否完成工作。

Can you tell me when the sports meeting will begin?

你能告诉我运动会将在什么时候开始吗?

(1) 以that引导的宾语从句:

that引导的宾语从句一般都是由陈述句充当,引导词that没有实际意义,不在从句中作任何成分,that可以省略,而且从句成分齐全,句意完整。

Do you think (that) it will rain? 你认为天会下雨吗?

He said (that) he could come on time. 他说他会准时来的。

(2) 以whether或if引导的宾语从句:

从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问句转化而来的,变成从句后,语序由原来的倒装语序变成陈述语序。whether和if意为“是否”。

Let us know whether / if you can finish the work before Friday.

请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把工作做完。

I don’t care whether you like the story or not.

我不在乎你是否喜欢这个故事。

注意:

以下情况一般只用whether不用if。

1) 接带to的动词不定式。

She doesn’t know whether to go to the zoo.

她不知道是不是去动物园。

2)与or not连用时。

I’m not sure whether or not he will come on time.

他能否准时来,我说不准。

(3) 特殊疑问词what/ when/ where/ who等引导的宾语从句:

此类宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,变成宾语从句后要用陈述语序,由wh-开头的疑问词引导。包括who, whom, whose, what, which等连接代词和where, when, how, why等连接副词,这些引导词有各自的意思,在从句中要作相应的成分,不能省略。例如:

Could you tell me which gate we have to go to?

请问我们得走哪个门?

He didn’t tell me how long he would stay here.

他没有告诉我他要在这里呆多长时间。

2. 宾语从句的语序

由whether/ if和特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句要用陈述语序,原来的倒装语序改成陈述语序时注意相应的助动词和动词的变化等。

Where does your father work? Can you tell us? →

Can you tell us where your father works?

你能告诉我们你爸爸在哪里工作吗?

Did you get home very late? He asked me. →

He asked me if I got home very late. 他问我是否到家很晚。

3. 宾语从句的时态对应

(1) 如果主句是一般现在时,宾语从句根据实际情况用各种时态。

例如:

My teacher says he will be back in a week. (一般将来时)

我的老师说他将在一个星期后回来。

My teacher says he is watching TV. (现在进行时)

我的老师说他正在看电视。

My teacher says he has seen the movie. (现在完成时)

我的老师说他已经看过这部电影了。

(2)如果主句是一般过去时,宾语从句用相应的过去时态。

例如:

My father said he was watching TV at that time.(过去进行时)

我爸爸说在那个时候他在看电视。

My father said the he had already seen the movie. (过去完成时)

我爸爸说他已经看过那部电影了。

注意:如果宾语从句是表示客观真理和规律的句子时,用一般现在时。

例如:

Our teacher told us the sun is much bigger than the earth. (一般现在时)

我们的老师告诉我们太阳比地球大多了。

4. 宾语从句的否定转移

主句如果是I think/ believe/ imagine/ suppose/ guess/ expect等,从句的否定一般要转移到主句中,其反意疑问句与从句一致。例如:

I don’t think they’ll wait to the last minute,will they?

我认为他们不会等到最后一分钟,他们会吗?

I don’t believe he did this, did he?

我相信他不会做这样的事,他会吗?

3

巩固练习

I.单项选择。

1.—Do you know ______ the Capital Museum?

— Next Friday.

A. when will they visit

B.when they will visit

C. when did they visit

D.when they visited

2.He wanted to know _______ the English party.

A.when will we have

B.when we will have

C.when would we have

D.when we should have

3.I want to know ________.

A.when we should arrive at the airport

B.when should we arrive at the airport

C.when the airport we should arrive at

D.when the airport should we arrive at

4.—David, look at the man in white over there. Can you tell me ______?

—He is a doctor.

A.Who is he B.who he is

C.what is he D.what he is

5. I don’t know when _____.

A. will the train leave

B. the train will leave

C. would the train leave

D. the train leave

6. Do you know what _____ with Jim?

A. is wrong B. wrong is

C. wrong was D. the matter is

7.-I want to know _____.

-Why not go to the park?

A. where I can go for a picnic

B. where can I go for a picnic

C. what I can go for a picnic

D. what can I go for a picnic

8. I don’t think he is right, ______?

A. do I B. isn’t he

C. is he D. don’t I

9. The teacher didn’t say you would come, _____?

A. would you B. wouldn’t you

C. did she D. didn’t you

10. Do you know______ daughter she is?

A. whose B. whom C. what D. who

11. They wondered if the teacher ______them some English songs the next week.

A. would teach B. had taught

C. will teach D. taught

12. He asked me if I knew______.

A. whose pen was it

B. whose pen it was

C. whose pen it is

D. whose pen is it

13. He told me ______ Paris is the capital ofFrance.

A. which B. the C. that D. what

14. He asked me ______ during the summer holiday.

A. where I had gone

B. where I had been

C. where had I gone

D. where had I been

15. I'm not sure whether ______ tomorrow.

A. they will arrive

B. will they arrive

C. they arrive

D. they have arrived

[真题链接]

1. —Do you know _________ the meeting?

—Tomorrow morning.A. when they hadB. when they are going to haveC. when did they haveD. when are they going to have

2. —Mr. Green, do you know_______?

—July 10, it will last a month.

A. when our summer camp begins

B. when does our summer camp begin

C. where our summer camp begins

D. where does our summer camp begin

3. I didn’t know ______.(

A. when would the train arrive

B. where could I get the book

C. what has been done

D. who left the message

II.根据汉语提示,用宾语从句补全下列句子。

1.我不知道为什么她如此着迷Apple iphone4s。

I don’t know _______________ Apple iphone4s.

2.我们给了她一些建议,但不知道她是否会接受。

We’ve given her some advice, but I don’t know_______________.

3.作为社会的一员,我们应该尽最大努力做我们应该做的。

As society members, we should try our best to do______________.

4. ——请你告诉我怎么到中山公园好吗?

——好的。你可以坐公交车去那。

—Could you tell me____________?

—Yes, you can go there by bus.

5. ——汤姆在纽约呢还是已经回家了?

——对不起,我不确信是否他已经回来。

—Is Tom still in New York or already back at home?

—Sorry,I’m not sure ____________.

III. 中考真题

1. — Could you tell me _________?

— Certainly. In half an hour.

A. when will the high speed train arrive

B. when the high speed train will arrive

C. when would the high speed train arrive

D. when the high speed train would arrive

2. —Excuse me, could you tell me ______ to get to the post office?

—Certainly. The No. 15 bus.

A. which bus I should take

B. I should take which bus

C. should I take which bus

D. which bus should I take

3.I think _____ not difficult _____ English every morning.

A. that; keep reading

B.it’s; keep reading

C. that; to keep reading

D.it; to keep reading

4. Do you know _________ Zunyi or not tomorrow?

A. whether are they leaving for

B. whether they are leaving for

C. if they are leaving for

D. if are they leaving for

5. The policewoman asked the little boy ______.

A.where did he live

B.where he lived

C.where he lives

D.where does he lives

6. — Show me the map, please. I wonder ____________.

— Look, it's here, in the east ofChina, near Taiwan Province.

A. where is Diaoyu Island

B. where Diaoyu Island is

C. what is Diaoyu Island like

7. — Could you tell me_____ he came here?

—He drove here himself.

A. how B. why C. when D. whether

8. —Can you tell me ____ the prize, Tom?

—Last year.

A. when you got

B. when did you get

C. when will you get

D. when you will get

参考答案

I.单项选择。

1. B。句意:——你知道他们什么时候参观首都博物馆吗?——下周五。本题考查宾语从句。宾语从句应用陈述句语序,故排除A、C两项;又由答句可知应该用将来时,故排除D项。

2. D。句意:他想知道我们什么时候举办英语联欢会。本题考查宾语从句的用法。当主句是一般过去时态的时候,宾语从句用相应的过去时态,而A、B两项都是一般将来时,故被排除;宾语从句用陈述句语序,而C项是疑问语序,也被排除。

3. A。句意:我想知道我们应该什么时候到达机场。本题考查宾语从句。动词know后面接的是宾语从句,由宾语从句要用陈述语序可排除B和D两项;又因为C项中the airport的位置不对,故选A。

4. D。 句意:——David,看那边那个穿白衣服的人,你能告诉我他是干什么的吗?——他是医生。本题考查宾语从句。由答句可知询问的是职业,所以用疑问词what;又因为宾语从句要用陈述句语序,故选D。

5.B。本题是考查宾语从句的语序和时态的用法。特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句用陈述语序,主句是一般现在时,宾语从句根据说话人的意思可以判断是一般将来时。所以选择B。

6.A。本题是考查宾语从句的语序用法。特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句用陈述语序,what在宾语从句作主语,所以what is wrong是陈述语序。同样如果D改成is the matter也是正确的。

7.A。本题是考查宾语从句的语序用法,特殊疑问词where引导的宾语从句用陈述语序。从对话的答语可以判断特殊疑问词where引导宾语从句。

8.C。本题是考查反意疑问句的用法。主句是I think和后面的宾语从句构成复合句,其反意疑问句的主语、谓语和宾语从句保持一致,前面的句子是否定句,所以附加疑问句用肯定形式。

9.C。本题是考查反意疑问句的用法。复合句的反意疑问句的主语、谓语和主句保持一致,这里主句是The teacher didn’t say,而且是否定句,所以附加疑问句用肯定形式。

10. A。句意为“你知道她是谁的女儿吗?”可知应该用whose。

11. A。从句的时态原本应该用一般将来时(因为时间状语是next week),但是由于主句的时态是一般过去时,因此从句的时态应该改为过去将来时,即would +动词原形。

12. B。首先通过从句应该是陈述句语序这一点来排除A和D,然后由于主句的时态是过去时,因此从句也要用过去的时态,故选B。

13. C。本题考查宾语从句的引导词that,可以省略,在从句中不作任何成分。

14. B。首先,从句应该用陈述句语序,因此只能考虑A或B。然后根据题目的意思,他问我去了哪里,证明我已经回来的,问的是曾经去了哪里,因此用been to。

15. A。该题中的A, C, D都是陈述句语序,都可以考虑;但是只有A符合从句时态的要求,故选A。

[真题链接]

1. B。句意:—你知道他们什么时候开会吗?—明天上午。本题考查宾语从句。tomorrow

morning为一般将来时的标志词,故可排除A、C两项。宾语从句的语序为陈述句语序,排除D项。故选B。

2. A。句意:—格林先生,你知道我们的夏令营什么时候开始吗?—7月10号,它将持续一个月。本题考查宾语从句。根据答语可知疑问词应为when,无论主语是陈述句还是疑问句,宾语从句都必须使用陈述句语序,故选A。

3. D。句意:我不知道是谁留下的信息。本题考查宾语从句的用法。宾语从句应该使用陈述句语序,而A、B两个选项都是疑问句语序,故排除;C选项时态不对,主句是过去时,从句也应用相应的过去时,故选D。

II.根据汉语提示,用宾语从句补全下列句子。

1. why she is so crazy about

2. whether she’ll accept it

3. what we should do

4. how I can get to Zhongshan park

5. if he has been back

III. 中考真题

1. B。由when引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序,所以排除A和C,主句时态是表示委婉语气的一般现在时,根据句意,选择B。

2. A。考查特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序,根据句意,选择A。

3. D。这里的it作形式宾语,动词不定式to keep reading English作真正的宾语。

4. B。宾语从句要用陈述句语序,所以排除A、D选项;if不能与or not连用故选B答案。

5. B。考查where引导的宾语从句,用陈述句语序,由asked可知从句用相应的过去时,所以选B。

6. B。考查where引导的宾语从句,要用陈述语序。根据句意可知选B。

7. A。由答语可知,问他来这的方式,所以引导词选how。

8. A。由答语last year可知问获奖的时间,when引导的宾语从句要用陈述语序,所以选A。

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